The government in Australia is divided into 3 levels; Commonwealth Government, State or Territory Government and Local Government. Each level of government manages it's own workforce and they therefore recruit their workforce separately. If you are looking for a government job and you don't want to rule out any options, then you should look at the websites for each of these three levels of government, as they all advertise their jobs separately.
The Commonwealth (or Federal) Government is headed by the Prime Minister and has departments located throughout Australia in both regional and rural areas. You can find Commonwealth Government jobs in every state. The Commonwealth Government implements laws made by the Federal Parliament. The responsibilities of the Commonwealth Government trade, commerce, currency, immigration, defence, telecommunications and welfare.
An list of Commonwealth Government departments and agencies is available here.
All permanent and some temporary vacancies are advertised publicly on website.
The Victorian State Government is in charge of things like police, schools, roads, hospitals, public housing and business regulation. The state government is headed by a Permier and has a comparable structure to the Commonwealth Government. Jobs within the Victorian Government are located throughout Victoria, with the largest number of public service jobs being located in Melbourne.
A list of VIC Government agencies and departments is available here
All permanent and some temporary jobs are listed on the Careers Victoria website
Local governments within Victoria assist the state and are usually in the form of a council or shire. They take responsibility for town planning, building works, local roads, parking, water and sewerage, waste disposal, domestic animals and community facilities. A council is headed by a Mayor and local government offices are located in every council or shire within the state. If you live rurally it is therefore often better to start looking for a government job within a local council, unless you know of a specific State or Commonwealth department that happens to be located close to you.
There is no central resource for advertising positions within Victorian councils however links to their vacancy pages are available here: Victorian Council Employment Vacancy Page
A list of councils is Victoria is located here.